Aleksandras Vitkus prof
Contribution and repair
2022 March. Ukrainian President Zelensky has advised the Russian authorities to study the words “reparation” and “contribution”. Contribution (lot. contribution < contribution – I add, I attribute), the amount that the winning state is forced to pay to the winning state under the peace treaty. War reparations – compensation for losses after the war, aggressor’s money, goods, industrial equipment, etc. Those words are also no strangers to Lithuania.
Compensation for compensation for the occupation of Russia was started immediately after the restoration of independence. In considering the methodology for calculating injury in 2000. June 13 The law “On Compensation for Damage Due to the Occupation of the USSR” was adopted by the Lithuanian Seimas, but remained unimplemented. The official position of the Russian government is that there was no occupation, and it was economically beneficial for the Lithuanian SSR to be in the USSR due to Soviet investments. 2019 The damage calculations started according to the method of Latvian scientists show that the statements that the Lithuanian SSR was maintained and not the donor itself are incorrect. Russia’s ambassador A. Udaltsov has stated that for the years 1940–1990, Lithuania remained “indebted” to Russia for 72 billion. USD (EUR 71 billion). Lithuania has previously estimated that the damage caused by the occupation of the USSR could reach about 80 billion. but, but this amount is not official.
Lawyer Dainius Žalimas emphasized that the current Russia is responsible for the USSR’s aggression against the Republic of Lithuania since 1940, as Russia considers itself a continuation of the USSR. “It calls itself that, it recognizes the acts of the USSR, Russia has extended the USSR’s membership in the United Nations,” the lawyer argued.“According to him, according to international law, the situation that existed before the violation of the law must be restored. regarding damages and impermissible doubts that Lithuania may submit these claims.
The question is whether Russia, now stunned by the war with Ukraine, will agree to negotiations with Lithuania on compensation? Only by expressing support for Ukraine did Japan immediately suspend all negotiations with Japan on the Kuril Islands. By declaring Russia a terrorist state, Lithuania has lost all chances to even mention the damage.
What does history show?
After the victories of the First World (1914–1919) – the Entente states – the huge contribution (so-called reparations) of money and kind to Germany and Austria (a total of about 33 billion US wars each) paralyzed their economies, causing hyperinflation; this was one of the reasons that facilitated Hitler’s coming to power.
1917 National Military Bonds were distributed in Great Britain at an interest rate of 5%. In total, around three million people in the UK have taken advantage of this offer. primarily for ten years, the effect of the bonds on the payment was borrowed in the form of consolidated loans with an interest rate of 4%. With the onset of the Great Depression (1929–1933), loans were converted into so-called “eternal” bonds. Only recently, a hundred people have finished paying the ransom for bonds to more than 11-year-olds.
After the Second World War, many treaties were signed to compensate countries such as Greece, Israel or the Soviet Union for the damage done during the war. The only state to win the war but pay compensation was the U.S., which paid Japan.
Relations between Germany and Greece deteriorated after the Athens government declared aspirations for reparations from Germany for Nazi crimes during World War II. Greek Prime Minister Alexis Cypri said Germany had never fully paid for reparations for the damage caused by the war.
Other states had to pay under the 1947 Paris Peace Agreement. Italy – $ 360 million the whole. It was on the same side with Germany and Japan until 1943. Italy has been demanded to pay 125 million. $ 105 million for Yugoslavia. $ 100 million for Greece. dollars for the Soviet Union and 25 million. amount for Ethiopia and 5 mln. days for Albania.
Finland is the only country to have paid for its schools in full, donating € 300 million to the Soviet Union. amount, although during the Winter War the Finns defended their land from Soviet soldiers. Not only did the USSR seize Finnish lands, Finland was forced to complete reparations to Moscow after the war.
Also, since World War II, the press has been increasing the amount of a school for one state to another. Here, Hungary – 300 million. the whole. She was ordered to give away 200 million. EUR 100 million for the Soviet Union. dollars for Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Romania – 300 million the whole. Under the agreement, they had to pay the Soviet Union for damage to the state’s “military operations.” Bulgaria – 70 million the whole. It was demanded to pay 45 million. $ 25 million for Greece. days for Yugoslavia, etc.
Germany has finally stopped paying for repairs that were imposed after the First World War. The last 70 million. The transfer of the euro was discussed on 3 September, the 20th anniversary of German reunification.
Russia lost the Cold War to the West, so the “uranium deal” is Russia’s summit agreeing to pay tribute to the winners in the form of strategic uranium. The last batch of uranium left the ocean only in 2015 – it paid in full for the American contribution to the defeat in the Cold War-Ghor-Chernomyrdin deal. It was the last batch of uranium shipped to the U.S. under a treaty signed between Russia and the United States 20 years ago to supply America with 500 meters of uranium, which Russia has pledged from its nuclear weapons and the U.S. intended to use as fuel for its nuclear power plants.
Russia’s repair debt to Lithuania
Let us briefly remember the problem of the damage done to Lithuania by the Soviet occupiers.
Back in 2000 June 13 The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania adopted the Law “On Compensation for Damage Caused by the Occupation of the USSR”. It states that the Russian Federation is the successor of the rights and obligations of the USSR under international law, and that the law provides for compensation for the damage caused. In the same year, the damage done to Lithuania was calculated – it was estimated at 20 (twenty) billion US dollars. Some calculated the damage to the United Nations methodology at an unofficial estimate of 800 billion scientists each.
2012 A commission was also set up in Lithuania to coordinate an action plan to calculate and compensate for the damage. however, that commission did not take up its duties. 2017 The Lithuanian Center for Genocide and Residence Investigation (LGGRTC) has decided to further clarify the official amount of damage – 20 billion US – but because no action has been taken.
We can see from history that even now one state does not pay established and approved repairs to another state. Sometimes you have to wait 100 years.
Is there a way out?
Yes. One such solution is proposed by Valdas Valiūnas in his article (LA, 07-13 May 2022, No. 17) “On the Damage Caused to Lithuania by the Soviet Occupiers”
We continue this idea.
The Russian-Ukrainian war that has now begun has opened a new page for Lithuania to recover at least part of the repair money. We publish one of the options, but they can be different. There are experts for this and the Seimas.
1.Although Lithuania is a small country, the wealth of Russian oligarchs for tens of millions is also found here. In addition, it is necessary to include the houses, apartments and factories they have purchased.
2. The Seimas shall pass a law that all property of oligarchs subject to sanctions shall be sold at auction.
3. The Seimas of Lithuania shall establish the Debt Recovery Fund and all funds shall be transferred to the new Fund.
4. In order not to accuse Lithuania of greed, the entire part of the fund could be paid to deportees and post-war partisan children, and other funds would be transferred to the reconstruction of the Ukrainian state (the chosen city), as the EU will of course be in such a position.
There is almost no other way. Otherwise, we will have to wait another hundred years for us to recover the debt.