This review of Russia’s role in the global market for colored gemstones focuses on a commodity – gem-colored (or, as it is also called, semi-precious) raw materials. According to the customs nomenclature, this is item 710310 – “precious stones (other than diamonds) and semi-precious stones, unworked or simply sawn, split or cleaned by roughing” (code HS6 ID 710310). To simplify the text, we will consider these objects under the name “stone-colored raw materials.”
For peer review, we will use data on trade in gemstone commodities from the Observatory of Economic Complexity, OEC (https://oec.world/en/profile/hs/precious-semi-precious-stones-unworked-partly-worke), and the reliability of transactions with access to data for 2019-2021 from the Federal Customs Service, FCS (http://stat.customs.gov.ru/analysis).
According to the OEC, the volume of exports of non-ferrous gemstones in 2020 decreased by 48.3% compared to 2019 to $0.41 billion, which accounted for 9.39% of the entire colored gemstone market*.
* – other shares of the colored gemstone market are large groups under the HS6 ID 710391 code Rubies, sapphires and emeralds, processed precious and semi-precious, processed” ($1.13 billion, or 25.9% of the entire market of colored jewelry stones).
The share of Russia in the world turnover of processed gemstones, according to the OEC, is small, and increased in 2020 by $8.48 million in exports (2.07% of export exports in this subgroup) and only $473 thousand in imports (0.12% of foreign imports in this subgroup). subgroup).
In 2020, there were global exporters of gemstones: Hong Kong ($59.3 million), Singapore ($45.3 million), Thailand ($44.1 million), USA ($31.2 million) and Brazil ($31.1 million). million dollars). million). dollars
Distribution of the shares of the countries of the world in the export of non-ferrous raw materials
According to the OEC, Russia occupies only 15th place in the world in terms of exports of stone-colored raw materials in monetary terms. Export flow of stone-colored raw materials from Russia according to https://oec.world over the last quarter of a century it has been unstable, with peaks and dips, and only for ten years has consumed hydrocarbons to a gradual increase, but in 2020 it still chewed:
Dynamics of exports from Russia of non-ferrous raw materials by code 710310 (data https://oec.world)
Relatively stable exports of stone-colored raw materials, according to the OEC, Russia have been carried out all these years in China, Hong Kong and India. It happened last year from Russia, at least once it exceeded $10 million (this happened in 2018, $14.9 million). Annual exports from Russia to the rest of the countries of this trio have never even reached $5 million, a record for the export of gemstones from Russia to Hong Kong in 2018 ($4.82 million), and to India in 2015 ($4.34 million).
However, once in Russia, the export of gemstone raw materials “took off” with deliveries to the United States higher (5.13 million dollars in 1995, but in others it did not rise by 475 thousand dollars) and with deliveries to Cyprus (8. $31 million in 1999). , with zero deliveries in other years).
Further, by a wide margin, the peak values of exports of stone-colored raw materials to Russia fall on:
– Australia ($1.51 million, 1998),
– Switzerland ($1.17 million, 2006),
– Belarus ($730 thousand, 2017),
– Kazakhstan ($561 thousand, 2014),
– United Arab Emirates ($502 thousand, 2017),
– Germany ($369 thousand, 1995),
– Thailand ($386 thousand, 2019),
– Belgium ($327 thousand, 2017),
– Poland ($291 thousand, 2013),
– South Korea ($234 thousand, 1996),
– Israel ($213 thousand, 1995),
– Canada ($182 thousand, 2007),
– Great Britain ($195 thousand, 2013),
– Malaysia ($155 thousand, 2017),
– Taiwan ($131 thousand, 2003),
– Mongolia ($126 thousand, 2013).
In a dozen more countries, exports of semiprecious raw materials from Russia were supplied in the amount of less than $100,000 per year.
The FCS data on exports of the stone-colored market from Russia in position 710310 in 2020 practically coincide with the OEC data:
It is not possible to find out the names of the stones exported to position 710310 for one or another GTD, so only a small suggestion can be made (in the 6th column of the table). However, it is clear that the share of raw gemstones, namely emerald, received no more than 1,595 million US dollars.
Russian exports of gemstones can be characterized as unstable, episodic and multidirectional – more than 20 countries that purchase gemstones irregularly and in relatively small quantities. Unless China looks like a stable buyer of Russian gem-colored raw materials, but not precious, but semi-precious and ornamental stones.
The volumes of imports of stone-colored raw materials in Russia are very noticeable due to the underdeveloped stone processing industry. In Russia there is not a single large or medium-sized cutting enterprise working with colored stones.
Yes, and the number of small enterprises for the processing of colored stone in Russia amounted to September 2022, the final one according to the Unified Register of Large and Medium-Sized Businesses (https://rmsp.nalog.ru/search.html?mode=extended#) only 112 units, of which 110 are micro-enterprises, and only 2 are small ones. The number of entities involved in the processing of color sequences has decreased in recent years. So, three years ago there were 180 of them in Russia (60% more), including 4 small enterprises. And in 2005, there were 12 colored stone processing plants in the industry, six times more than today.
The obvious reason for such a deplorable state and degradation of the stone processing industry is observed in a sharp, completely unbearable level of regulation of the circulation of precious stones, which is based on the norms adopted in 1998 of the Federal Law “On Precious Metals and Precious Stones”.
Dynamics of imports to Russia of stone-colored raw materials under the code 710310 for a quarter of a century according to https://oec.world looks like
Dynamics of imports of stone-colored raw materials to Russia by code 710310 (data https://oec.world)
the most stable, albeit very weak, flow of gemstone consumption imports to Russia from Germany. At its peak (it was in 2003), it reached $1.04 million, but in recent years it has fluctuated around $20,000 a year. A significant volume of imports of stone-colored raw materials to Russia from individual countries fell on Italy in 2010 and amounted to $3.22 million.
As in the case of the export of semiprecious raw materials, the volumes of deliveries from other countries were far behind. Thus, the peak values of Russian imports of stone-colored raw materials fall on the following countries:
– Switzerland ($757 thousand, 2009),
– Great Britain ($583 thousand, 2010),
– Thailand ($347 thousand, 2011),
– Poland ($331 thousand, 2019),
– Armenia ($277 thousand, 2019),
– Lithuania ($274 thousand, 2017),
– Zambia ($244 thousand, 2002),
– Hong Kong ($234 thousand, 2019),
– Tanzania ($118 thousand, 2013),
– Brazil ($109 thousand, 2013),
– Madagascar ($101 thousand, 2006).
In 2010, when the total volume of imports for position 310710 amounted to about 4.3 million, but in other years it did not rise above $1 million. And this despite the fact that in Russia there are no industrial deposits of such protected colored gems as ruby and sapphire. However, both in the past and in the already cut form, these stones were brought to Russia in very small quantities.
Vladimir Zboykov for Rough and polished