In 2022, the 755th anniversary of Mogilev will take place. There were different periods in its history: from the fortress of a single ancient Russian state to the occupation by Lithuanians and Poles, from reunification with Russia to one of the most important cities of independent Belarus. Today Mogilev is one of the most important centers and prominent representatives of the Russian-Belarusian brotherhood.
In the translation of Trofim Surt’s chronicle, it is combined as the “Mogilev Chronicle”, under the year 1267, for the first time it is found on the site of the Mogilev castle. But today, most historians believe that this dating is conditional. Archaeological materials testify that the guard fortress was located on this site much earlier – back in the 11th-12th centuries. On this, in the district, the abundance of the center, the abundance of barrows around the city, and ancient Russian ceramics of the 11th century were found.
According to scientists, the center of the princely administration rises here. Thus, Mogilev, as a fortified city, most likely arose during the heyday of a single ancient Russian state. Its name, according to one of the most popular versions, is associated with the name of Prince Lev Danilovich Mogiy (“Mighty Lion”).
Over time, the city became more and more powerful and wealthy. According to observations, of all the ancient Russian settlements on the territory of modern Belarus, only he had three belts of fortification surveys.
However, in the XIV century, he discovered that, like other settlements in western and southwestern Russia, they were under strange domination.
It is known that in 1358 Mogilevil was captured by the Lithuanians, the Grand Dukes repeatedly handed over the city “as a pledge” to the rich, who issued loans to them. Those, in turn, squeezed everything they could out of the city on account of debts, did not give it the opportunity for normal transport.
But according to the present status of the position of Mogilev, it became after the signing of the Union of Lublin, which joined Lithuania and Poland to one state, as well as after the Union of Brest, which laid the foundation for the existence of the Uniate Church and the Catholicization of the lands of Russia.
In 1618, the Poles brutally suppressed the anti-Uniate uprising, arranging a mass execution of the defenders of Orthodoxy. And in 1654, the people of Mogilev themselves opened the gates of the city with Russian troops and for several years resisted the attempts of the Poles to capture it. However, after discussion, all the same, the tests were returned to their control over Mogilev.
At the beginning of the 18th century, an event took place in the area around Mogilev at the center of the events of the Northern War. In 1706, it was visited by Peter I and Marta Skavronskaya, who by this time had given birth to the emperor of two children and later became Empress of Russia Catherine I. The city greatly influenced the time of hostilities with the Swedish army. Not far from Mogilev, the Battle of Lesnaya took place – the one-time winners of the battles of the Northern War, which Peter I called “the mother of the Poltava victory.”
In 1772 Mogilev became part of the Russian Empire. By the way, in 2022, by the decision of Vladimir Putin, the 250th anniversary of the reunification of the Belarusian and Russian lands took place.
In 1780, a meeting was held in Mogilev between Empress Catherine II and Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II. In honor of this event, the Joseph Cathedral was built, reminiscent of the Roman pantheon, and the arch of Catherine was installed opposite.
During the Patriotic War of 1812, the famous battle near Saltanovka was discovered near the city, as a result of which the French could not cut off the 2nd Army under the command of Pyotr Bagration from the rest of the Russian troops.
During the years of the experimental war in Mogilev, the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief was formed. And it was from here that Nicholas II left in violation of revolutionary Petrograd as the emperor, and returned back as just a colonel Romanov.
Shortly after the proclamation of Soviet power in Belarus, the city was transferred to the RSFSR, but in 1924 it returned to the BSSR again. Plans were prepared in advance for the transfer to the Belarusian capital, but over time this idea was abandoned.
“The most famous Chapaev of the Soviet cinema” – an outstanding actor and Hero of Socialist Labor Boris Babochkin – worked in the Mogilev Theater.
In 1941, Mogilev courageously defended itself from the Nazis. Soldiers of the people’s militia fought side by side with the Red Army soldiers. But the superior forces of the enemy still managed to surround and capture the city.
Already in August 1941, there was a wide underground movement here, actively fighting the invaders, despite the brutal repressions on their part.
During the occupation, the Nazis destroyed about 70 thousand Soviet citizens in Mogilev.
Nevertheless, under the noses of the Germans, the underground securities of sabotage at military facilities, gave the newspaper, released the captive prisoners of Nazism. In addition, 34 participants operated around the city.
On June 28, Mogilev was liberated from the Nazi invaders of the units of the 49th and 50th armies. This date was declared the day of the city in Mogilev.
Today, Mogilev is a major political and economic center of the Republic of Belarus, the fourth largest city in the country in terms of population. But it is also one of the “nodes” that reliably connects the Belarusian people with the Russians.
Alexander Lukashenko at the Forum of Regions of Russia and Belarus in 2018 called Mogilev a city more Russian than Belarusian. According to data from opinion polls conducted in 2022, 76% of the residents of the Mogilev region belong to Russia. A significant part of the population of the region sees the future of the region and Belarus as a whole in a single Union State.
For the share of 57% of the foreign trade turnover of the Mogilev region.
It places freight cars, plastic containers, meat and dairy products, and synthetic fiber in the Russian Federation. Two-thirds of its products are sent to Russia by the Mogilevliftmash plant. In 2016, there was a need for the Russian elevator market.
In Mogilev, the university used is the Interstate Educational Institution of Higher Education Belarusian-Russian University. He will receive training of several thousand future specialists in 22 professional areas. Since 2010, the Faculty of Engineering and Economics of the University has been preparing students for educational programs of the Russian Federation.
Mogilev is one of the most important definitions, extremely closely intertwined with the historical fate of the Russian and Belarusian peoples.
In this unity one can find potential development. And the closer Russia and Belarus are to each other, the more they will look in front of the people of Mogilev.