- Elizaveta Podshivalova
The State Duma on Wednesday decided to start work on Russia’s withdrawal from the Bologna system of education. On the eve of the head of the Ministry of Education Valery Falkov called it a lived stage. Disputes about the Bologna system in Russia have not disappeared all these years, but now the main argument is not the quality of such education, but its focus on Europe.
The Bologna system is a concept adopted in 1999 in European countries to test the accuracy of processing and the highest quality of education.
The membership of the Bologna process includes all European countries, with the exception of Monaco and San Marino. Russia has been participating in it since 2003.
What the authorities say
“The future belongs to our own unique education system, which is based on the interests of the national economy and the maximum space of opportunities for each student,” Falkov said in an interview with Kommersant on Tuesday. Falkov’s interview came out two months after it was captured and it was announced that a withdrawal from the Bologna system was not being discussed.
After Falkov’s words, separately sounding calls for withdrawal from the Bologna process turned into a harmonious chorus. Politics and officials in the environment managed to condemn the European system for the “degradation of personnel”, rejoice at the “decolonization” of education and threaten what the EGE advises.
State Duma Speaker Vyacheslav Volodin said that the exit from the Bologna system is manifested in all manifestations. He noted that the issue requires urgent consideration. Sergei Kabyshev, Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Taxes and Duties, in turn, said that the committee already has a “road map” on the register of education systems.
Among the cases who did not keep the flow of criticism was the head of the Accounts Chamber, Alexei Kudrin, who dispensed time from international sources and refused the middle table, including research.
The Kremlin also treated the initiative with restraint. Press Secretary Dmitry Peskov said that before talking about changes in the education system, it is necessary to proceed from the parameters of what is happening for the replacement.
What is the Bologna system
The Bologna system has two main cycles of study at universities – bachelor’s and master’s programs, as well as the possibility of continuing education in doctoral studies. When a cycle is changed, a change in the educational trajectory is determined (for example, after completing a bachelor’s degree at the Faculty of History, one can enter a master’s program at the Faculty of Political Science, etc.).
A key aspect of the Bologna system is the provision of student mobility and access to the labor market for graduates.
The system of educational loans (for each course taken, it accrues a certain number of such loans, it is usually necessary to collect about 60 per year) goes through academic exchange programs, and then the courses taken at the main university are re-credited.
Mutual receipt of diplomas obtained within the country of the Bologna system gave students the opportunity to complete a bachelor’s degree in Russia and enter a master’s program abroad. The unified diploma model also makes it easier for graduates to find work in other countries.
Ideally, the Bologna system of education, which has been joined by almost 50 countries, should create a single educational space in Europe.
For slowing down the Bologna process
One of the main reasons for criticism of the Bologna system in Russia is the opportunity to get a higher education diploma after four years of study instead of five or six years. So, later, the opponent of the Bologna process, the rector of Moscow State University Viktor Sadovnichy, that, unlike the bachelor’s degree, “the five-year system is ready for fundamental specialists,” and also uses the Russian “line up” and mentality.
At the same time, as Yevgeny Mironov, the initial Vice-Rector of the Moscow Higher Public School and Economic Sciences and the Dean of the Faculty of Humanities at the RANEPA, universities that provide a good education according to the course can make a good education according to the 4 + 2 system, or they can do it according to the five-year system.
“Three-time bachelor’s degrees are also used in the general order, including one case of a university, the quality of which is beyond doubt,” Mironov told the BBC. In general, in his opinion, a bachelor’s degree is rather not the foundation for professional education.
“We are thinking of thinking not about a four-year program, but about a six-year program, during which the student has the opportunity at least once (after completing the bachelor’s degree) to adjust his study plan,” he says. which a person put down and never learned anything else in his life, then this, of course, is not enough for the modern labor market.
However, like Moscow State University professor Alexander Asmolov, the rejection of the Bologna system did not lead to problems in connection with students, as well as for political reasons and “the general orientation of the system towards isolationism.”
“The main reason for any transformations in education, recovery in Russia, naturally, is not in education, but in fact, that Russia as a country has catapulted itself from the world streams of civilization,” he told the BBC.
The possibilities of academic mobility and life in other countries, which are opening up thanks to the Bologna system, go into “value dissonance with the current sphere of Russia, including the educational sphere.” According to him, leaving the Bologna system means giving up yet another type of interaction with “unfriendly countries.”
What awaits Russian education after leaving the Bologna system?
So far, we are talking only about the expected intention, and we do not know what exactly will be changed in the Russian education system and what will be proposed instead of the Bologna process, Yevgeny Mironov considered.
“If she [система образования] is changed, then at least it can be expected that there will be a transitional period during which the impulses are revising the procedures, the contracts for the development,” – education expert.
At the same time, according to Mironov, recently there are so many factors (both within Russia and in Europe) that affect international cooperation that leaving the Bologna system will not be the main one among them.