Lyon, a historically coveted city
Due to its strategic geographical position, particularly from a commercial point of view, the city of Lyon – located on a natural border formed by the Rhône – has historically always been highly coveted. The city thus saw itself belonging to several kingdoms: Burgundy, the Frankish Kingdom, Lotharingia, Francia, the province, the Kingdom of Burgundy and, in 1032, the Holy Roman Empire.
And it was in this context that Guy II, Count of Forez, and Archbishop Héracle de Montboissier disputed, at that time, what would later be called the City of Lights. A discord which Frederick 1st Barbarossa, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, tried to put an end to in 1157. The latter decided by granting all powers to the archbishop. But the omnipotence of the Church does not please the entire people, and in particular the bourgeoisie. From the 1200s, strong tensions began to emerge. The city thus saw the emergence of many protest movements on the part of the bourgeoisie which, little by little, managed to make themselves heard.
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When the archbishop, the canons and the bourgeoisie fought over the city of Lyon
Between 1267 and 1320, Lyon became the scene of recurring clashes between the archbishop, the canons and the bourgeoisie. Around the city, many are trying to take advantage of this unstable context to take possession of the territory. It begins after Philippe 1st of Savoy, who became archbishop of the city in 1244, resigns in 1267 to become count of Savoy. The bishop of Autun is chosen to ensure the interim, and the bourgeoisie seizes this fault to try to overthrow the power. In 1269, the bourgeois rose up.
In 1292, King Philippe le Bel – who succeeded his father King Philippe III le Bold – was taken to task by the bourgeoisie. The latter sees in it the opportunity to establish his power over the city which is still the property of the Holy Roman Empire. He decides to take the city under his wing for protection and against the powers of the Church, and sets up a guardian to defend the bourgeoisie.
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The Treaty of Vienna of 1312
Opposite, Archbishop Pierre de Savoie finds himself obliged to submit but tries to raise the people against the king. In 1310, Louis X called Louis le Hutin, son of Philippe IV le Bel, landed in the city accompanied by an army to arrest the archbishop. Two years later, on April 10, 1312, the Treaty of Vienna was signed. Signed by the Archbishop of Lyon, it now marks the attachment of the city of Lyon to the Kingdom of France:
“We, Pierre de Savoie, Archbishop of Lyon, have decided to transfer to the Most Serene Prince Lord Philippe, by the grace of God King of France, and to his successors the Kings of France, all the temporal jurisdiction which falls to us at title of our Church; and we give to it and concede to it, in perpetuity, the mother and mixed empire and all the temporal jurisdiction, high and low, of the city of Lyon and its dependencies on either side of the Saône. .
By this document, he renounces his temporal jurisdiction in favor of the king, ceding to him his civil and judicial rights over the city. Lyon is French.
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